The Coast Guard was established in 1790 by the U.S. Congress, as the Revenue Marine. By the 1860s it became the U.S. Revenue Cutter Service and arrived at the current designation after it was merged with the U.S. Life-Saving Service in 1915, subordinated to the Department of the Treasury. Since then, it became responsible for domestic maritime protection and law enforcement, targeting smugglers, drug traffickers, and aiding other uniformed services of the United States in the course of their duties.
The Coast Guard operated numerous military bases organized under state branches of the Coast Guard (eg. the Commonwealth Coast Guard in Massachusetts), tracking down and pursuing criminals falling under their jurisdiction. The Coast Guard pier in the Boston metropolitan area is one example of such a military base.
↑Real-world history and the scant few mentions in Fallout 4.
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