Cambridge was a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, in the Boston metropolitan area. The site for what would become Cambridge was chosen in December 1630, because it was located safely upriver from Boston Harbor – and on the north side of the Charles River, which made it easily defensible from attacks by enemy ships. Located at the first convenient Charles River crossing west of Boston, Newe Towne as it was called at the time, was one of a number of towns founded by the 700 original Puritan colonists of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Eventually, it was named in honor of the University of Cambridge in Britain, an important center of the Puritan theology embraced by the town's founders.
The town expanded greatly, before eventually being subsumed into the Greater Boston metropolitan area. Before the Great War, it was famous for the Commonwealth Institute of Technology laying at its heart, and numerous prominent centers of research and development, such as Greenetech Genetics or Cambridge Polymer Labs. Academic infrastructure constituted a major part of the district, as students continued to flock to the Institute in search of higher learning. When the Great War brought devastation to the world, Cambridge received a direct hit, although much of the district was spared from the devastation. Among them were surviving staff and students of the CIT, who eventually founded The Institute in 2110 beneath the CIT ruins, and permanently sealed themselves off from the surface in the 2180s, after failed attempts to coexist with the surface and the creation of the molecular relay. Since then, Cambridge has been left to its own devices, divided between ferals clustering around Cambridge crater, raider gangs operating along the Charles River, and the odd super mutant warband. Around 2287, recon squad Gladius arrived in Cambridge on the third long range recovery expedition sent by the Brotherhood of Steel, but they have fared poorly due to relentless attacks by local wildlife, human or otherwise.
The town of Cambridge, largely unaffected by the Great War's nuclear fire, still has many of its pre-War structures intact, making the town a promising are for prospective settlers and raiders alike.
↑Fallout 4 Vault Dweller's Survival Guide Collector's Edition p.428: "Zone 7: Neighborhood: Charlestown By far the largest of the Neighborhoods, and usually the first one travellers to Boston visit when heading in from Concord and Lexington, Cambridge is a sprawl of college structures and old homes (and even older feral inhabitants) from before the dawn of the 21st century. The closer to the Charles River you venture, the larger the structures, and the more dominated by raider gangs this zone becomes. The strangely silent C.I.T. Ruins still stand as a monument to past scientific discoveries, but the Institute scientists themselves are deep underground. For the sightseer, there’s the impressively radioactive Cambridge Crater and its local feral population (don’t forget to pack protective gear!), and taller structures like the landmark Greenetech Genetics tower. Venture eastwards to the freeway segmenting Cambridge and Charlestown, and you’ll discover a sizable Super Mutant camp in a half-finished high-rise, as well as a secret Railroad safehouse." (Fallout 4 Vault Dweller's Survival Guide Map)