On highway bridge between Broadcast Tower KB5 and SatCom Array NW-07c, as you approach from the east, the corpse of a Scientist will be blown out of the back of a truck. The book will be on the scientist and is much more easily looted from any body parts that remain on the bridge rather than what has fallen into the river below the bridge.
Corporate offices, it's sitting on a wall shelf hanging over open air on the second floor. It is possible to jump and attempt to grab it, but it is much easier to shoot it off with a pistol from the left side of the hole.
On a desk in the room with the door to the Metro Access & Generator.
A special version of this book specific to the Wasteland Survival Guide quest exists in the game's code, but is unused. It is identical to the standard Big Book of Science and grants the same bonus when used. It is unclear why this specific version was created.
It is possible to obtain infinite copies of the book because the Ant Researcher in Shalebridge Tunnels respawns every 73 hours. This resets his inventory and the book can be taken from him multiple times. It may be difficult to find him at times. The Ant Researcher is hostile to both you and the "friendly" ants, but usually will not fight, choosing instead to flee, sometimes glitching into areas of the cave you cannot reach.
If you intend to pick up all 25 skill books (and not use the above bug), you'll have to buy the Scientist Theme for your Tenpenny Tower suite. Only 24 books are available if you choose not to or if you get the Megaton house.